Aşağıdan neoliberalleşmenin kurumsal formu olarak sivil toplum kuruluşları ve STK'laşma
Basically this thesis aims to make out the following key question: What are the concrete -economical, political and institutional- implications of the so-called "neoliberal globalization", which is economical, political and ideological capitalist reconstruction process in the last thirty years, on civil society? While the effects of this process on the state have been explored intensively and systematically, the research on the effects of the same process on civil society have been unable to go beyond of normative assessments and partial and small-scale studies and observations. This is especially true in terms of the studies carried out so far on this issue in Turkey. Beyond those fragmentary and mostly dominated by normative assessment based on liberal presuppositions, the need for studies that are not only fed from the field researches on the subject but also more in-depth and holistic to go beyond the individual field research has attracted the attention of many researchers concerned. Through concepts such as "downstream neoliberalization", "neoliberal governance" and "NGO-isation", this study reflects a modest effort to fill such a gap. Accordingly this study brings into question the neo-liberal position on civil society, which not only differs from other contemporary civil society position at the theoretical level but also practically transforms today's civil society at the global level through various policies, so-called ""strengthening of civil society", carried out under the thumb of the state or interstate institutions, with its theoretical and historical background as well as its results I refer to as the "NGO-sation". In the framework of "governance" paradigm of 1990s, neoliberalism has evolved from an agenda summarized as "civil society versus state" to a new agenda which the two complement each other and redefined "civil society" institutionally, functionally and in terms of its relationship with the market and/or state in a completely different way compared to the other contemporary "civil society" positions: institutionally as a "third sector" consisting of NGOs; functionally as "projects" carried out by NGOs and filling cracks caused by neoliberal policies and even deepening these policies in the the bottom; and, in terms of its relationship with the market and/or state, as a "partnership" or "stakeholdership". I argue here that the updated neo-liberal civil society position, with its "governance" or "participation" forms, by encouraging such a form, function and relationship embodied in the NGO-type organizations and the process of "NGO-isation" has comprehensively led to what I call as "downstream neoliberalization" and as is much more instrumentalist, colonising, coopting, standardizing, exclusivist and ultimately antidemocratic than it seems, although its all claims of more democracy, social inclusion, pluralism, partnership with civil society. Moreover, this position, with all its implications for civil society, has not only rendered practically meaningless the thesis of "civil society versus state" put forward by democratic-libertarian "civil society" positions but also hollowed out all socially positive elements attributed –just as to the state- to "civil society" by the same positions.