Kongo savaşları (1996-2003): Soğuk savaş sonrası Afrika'da çatışma ve kriz
In this study, Congo Wars were analyzed as a result of economical, political, demographic, social and cultural changes that have occured since the colonization of Congo. Hence, the problems that Kongo experienced during the decolonization and the one party regime era like Africa confronted after Berlin Conference were revealed. After analyzing the causes of conflicts in Congo, policies of the parties and major powers toward Congo during the war were handled. In the first chapter, the problems encountered by Congo/Zaire have been identified in the elapsed time the decolonization to the beginning of the conflicts. How effective ideological and geopolitical tensions of Cold War era have been investigated the occurence of these problems. In addition, the debt impasse of Zaire that entered, where Zaire was articulated to neo-liberal order through structural adjustment programmes in the 1980's, and the deepening economic crisis in the 1990's were analyzed. In 1994, the effects of Rwandan Genocide that causes the death of 800.000 people on Zaire, and Kinshasa's minority policies are other issues discussed in the first chapter. Imminent reasons of the Congo Wars and Zaire policies of neighboring countries and the major powers are the subjects of the second chapter. Moreover, the progress of the anti-Mobutu coalition and the structure of government which was established after the Sese Seko Mobutu era led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila was discussed in this chapter. In the third chapter, purposes of the countries involved in the Second Congo War and conflicts occured during the war were revealed. Lusaka peace talks which took place in 1999 and the process following comittee which was established to conflict prevention were examined in this chapter. After the assassination of Laurent Désiré Kabila, at a time when the peace effort was fruitless, through that following Joseph Kabila's presidency restarting peace talks and to put the end to the conflicts in Pretoria was examined in this chapter. Keywords: Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Congo Wars, African Great Lakes, civil wars.