Hz. Peygamber ve Dört Halife Döneminde gayr-ı müslim politikaları
Islam, which is the last circle of the divine revelation, aims to bring all people together in common ground and to end the spiritual and material fragmentation in the world. Prophet Mohammed gave a good example only in 23 years about how people embracing different beliefs can live together, by struggling uniquely in Arabian Peninsula where political, economic, cultural and social facts separated humanity. Islamic state put collocutors through their rights and duties whereas it followed a surrounding manner towards non-muslims. Muslims, who proposed various offers to their collocutors, named these offers as Islam, Jizya and Battle. Among these offers, although in Battle, muslims protected fundamental rights of people addressed. The thesis includes two chapters. The introduction consists of the political balance of power in Arabian Peninsula and main religious structures, the foundation of Islamic state, non-muslims and legal statue of non-muslims in the Quran. The first chapter analyzes Prophet Mohammed?s approach and policies towards non-muslims. The second chapter focuses on, firstly, the period of the four caliphs?s gain through conquests and then institutionalization of Islamic state. Also, the problems encountered under the governance of the rightly guided caliphs were solved by the guidance of the Quran?s directions and Mohammed?s applications. Consequently, it would not be talked about any split in non-muslim policies of muslims in the time of the prophet and rightly guided caliphs.