Çoklu ortamlara dayalı öğretimde paralel tasarım ve görev zorluğunun üniversite öğrencilerinin başarılarına ve bilişsel yüklenmelerine etkisi
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Kilic, Ebru, 2006, Effects Of Parallel Instructional Design and Task DifficultyLevel On University Students? Achievement and Cognitive Load in MultimediaLearning Environment, Doctoral Dissertation, Adviser: Asst. Prof. Dr. NurettinSimsek, 195 p.ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of parallelinstructional design and task difficulty level on achievement and cognitive loadin multimedia learning environment. The study was conducted on 77 studentsfrom Early Childhood Teaching Programme and Social Studies TeachingProgramme at Gazi University, Faculty of Gazi Education in fall semester of2004-2005 academic years. Two multimedia learning environments weredeveloped: the first one used parallel instructional design approach in which38 students studied, the second one used non-parallel instructional designapproach in which 39 students studied.The research is conducted as 2 X 4 factorial design. The dependentvariables of the study were achievement and cognitive load; the independentvariables of the study were environment structure and task difficulty level.Cognitive load was used as an independent variable in testing some researchquestions. Environment structure which was the first factor of study has twolevels and classified as parallel and non-parallel multimedia, task difficultylevel which was the second factor of study had four levels as very easy, easy,difficult and very difficult.As a result of this study, it was found that parallel instructional designdecreased the cognitive overload. The cognitive load scores of students in?very easy? tasks were lower than in ?difficult? and ?very difficult? tasks. Also,the cognitive load scores of students in ?easy tasks? were lower than in?difficult? and ?very difficult? tasks. The overall achievement scores ofstudents in the parallel group were higher than students in the non-parallelgroup. Students? achievement scores in different task difficulty levels in theparallel group were higher than the non-parallel group. There were nosignificant differences between overall achievement scores of students in theparallel group according to the cognitive load level. However, there weresignificant differences between overall achievement scores of students in thenon-parallel group according to the cognitive load level. There was significantdifference between easy task achievement scores of students in the parallelgroup according to the cognitive load level. There was significant differencebetween easy, difficult and very difficult task achievement scores of studentsin the non-parallel group according to the cognitive load level. The weeklyefficiency scores of parallel instructional design which was calculated fromcombining measures of cognitive load and achievement scores were betterthan non-parallel instructional design?s efficiency scores.