Tanzimat'tan sonra idari yapılanmada Ankara örneği (1842-1908)
Ankara was one of the Anatolian cities governed as a ?sanjak? until the period of the Mahmut II. Upon some regulation and adjustment of the state governance and establishment of ?Redif Military Organization [Reserve Force]? in the period of the Mahmut II, the city was converted into a state in 1836. At that time, the sanjaks of Çankırı, Kastamonu, Viranşehir and Çorum comprised the state of Ankara.Ankara is a city where the innovations and developments done in the government were implemented in the period of political reforms in the Ottoman Empire. In order to collect the taxes in accordance with the innovations resulting from the period of the reforms in 1840, the organization of tax collection and small and big assemblies established is a new and significant period which triggered the history of assemblies in the history of the country. The ?Grand Assembly? that was formed in Ankara in 1841 had six members, three of whom were Muslim and three from the Greek and Armenian nations. In 1846, the number of the governor [highest civil administrator] of Ankara and members of the Grand Assembly were fourteen. As a result of the new regulations and arrangements in the government in 1842, the state of Ankara was limited to the sanjaks of Çorum and Çankırı, and it had eleven districts. The number of these administrative districts of the state of Ankara increased in 1850. Between 1851 and 1852, Ankara was turned into a sanjak under the jurisdiction of the state of Bozok, and it became the center of the state again in 1853; later it was made a sanjak again in 1856 and attached to Bozok. Based on some new implementations across the country in 1859, certain states were brought into the level of governorship. Our city got its share from this arrangement and while it was a sanjak, it was made a governorship.In 1861, Ankara became the center of the state once more and it maintained this position in the coming years. In the period between 1840 and 1864, total fifteen governors and district governors took the office in Ankara. Of these governors, Vecihi and Rıza Pashas served a period of three years in the state.The ?Ordinance of Province of Tuna? dated 1864 was put into implementation in 1867 in Ankara. ?District,? as an administrative unit, stood in the administrative structure not in 1871 and but in 1867 contrary to the common belief. The implementation in our city indicates this fact. Likewise, the incorrectness of the common belief that the office of deputy governor was established in 1871 was proved by the implementations in the city. Andon Efendi [Efendi is an official address] was appointed as the deputy governor in Ankara in 1867; and following this, the sanjaks of Bozok and Kayseri were brought under the jurisdiction of the state of Ankara.Between 1864 and 1871, three governors officiated in the city of Ankara. By the implementation of the Ordinance of Province of General Administration in 1871, in the same year, six governors took the office in Ankara. The number of the governors and situation in the city shows the fact that some troubles were experienced in the enforcement of the new regulation and arrangement across the city. In 1871, the province of Ankara consisted of the sanjaks of Yozgat and Kırşehir, and there were six districts attached to the Central Ankara sanjak. This administrative structure continued until 1901, and Çorum was added to the sanjaks attached to Ankara in this year. Some minor changes were made on this structure until 1908.There were twenty three governors between 1871 and 1908 in Ankara who served. The one who served the longest term among these governors was Abidin Pasha, who stayed in the office for a period of eight years. He was followed by Mehmet Tevfik Bey and Cevat Bey [bey is an official address] in terms of service period in the governorship with five years. Aziz Pasha, Sırrı Pasha, Memduh Pasha and Abidin Pasha did quite successful and fruitful works on public works and education in our city. The roads from Ankara to Kastamonu, from Yozgat to Amasya and from Yozgat to Kayseri were constructed and opened for service in the period of Aziz Pasha. The junior high school was restored and made ready for the education. In addition to these, the construction of an institute of teacher training [a kind of education faculty] commenced. Sırrı Pasha and his team decided to open a High School and the construction of the school building started in his time as well. The institute of teacher training, the construction of which began in the period of Aziz Pasha, was opened when Abidin Pasha was in the office. And also, the construction works for the railway was initiated in Ankara in addition to the solution of the drought problem of the city by bringing water from the vicinity of Elmadağ.The General Assembly of the Province of Ankara convened for the first time in 1869 in our city. The total number of the members and attendants in this first convention of the assembly was eighteen including the governor, chief treasurer, judge, mufti, chief clerk, deputy as well as four Ankara members one of whom was non-Muslim, and three were Muslim, four Muslim members from Kayseri and three from the sanjak of Yozgat. The aim of the assembly was to ask for and demand the benefits and interests on public works, construction, education and health that were needed in the city, and that nobody thought of and imagined at that time until now. It is seen that the establishment of a sugar factory was forecasted in the city since sugar beets were planted across the area as one of the items on the agenda of the assembly that convened in 1869. Additionally, it is observed that the most striking problems of our city were the need for new roads and drought, and the assembly sought for solution to such problems. The Provincial General Assembly of Ankara asked for machineries to manufacture mohair and shawls and scarves from the central government of the Ottoman Empire in addition to the road construction as the outcome of the meeting held in 1871.The natural number of the members of the Assembly of Ankara Provincial Administration would be four, five and six. The elected number of the members was four people. Two of the elected members were of non-Muslim. Sometimes it was possible that the ecclesiastics such as metropolitan bishops and archbishops were natural members of the assembly like the mufti.In 1859, the directorates of the revenue officers and fiscal were abolished, and the governors and administrators of the sanjaks were held responsible for the financial issues. However, an accountant was delegated to each state centers to perform the tasks. In 1867, there was a new arrangement and by means of this new administrative regulation, the office of chief treasurer was reinstated. The chief treasurer, who was carrying out the financial affairs of the province and whose duties were specified and delegated by the Provincial Ordinance of 1871, became one of the most prominent civil servants of the province. There was no stability in the terms of office of the treasurers who were assigned in our city as seen from our research. The terms of the clerks who were in charge of the official communication and correspondence of the province varied in addition to the clerks who stayed in the office for periods of 11 ? 12 years.The most significant commissions acting in the province center were Commissions of Public Works and Education. The commissions had member who were elected by vote. The chair of the Commission of the Public Works was the Governor, and the chair of the Commission of the Education was Director of Education. These commissions were assisting the Governor in his works and facilitating the relevant duties and tasks. The most important problems of the city of Ankara; which were road construction, draught, lack of quality education and inadequate number of school, were being attempted to be resolved by means of the governor in the first place, assemblies and commissions.