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Dementia is one of the most important cause of mortality and morbidity in the elderly and most frequently seen types of it are Alzheimer?s disease and vascular dementia. While Alzheimer?s disease is associated with neurodegenerative processes, vascular dementia is a result of vascular pathologies. However, the increasing of the studies showing the relationship between cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer?s disease in last years showed that besides neurodegenerative processes, vascular factors can take part in etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer?s disease.Arterial stiffness is defined as the functional and structural changes happened in vessels as a result of aging, environmental and genetic factors. The relationship between arterial stiffness and cardiovascular diseases like hypertension, heart failure, coronary artery disease, Diabetes Mellitus, metabolic syndrome and chronic renal failure was shown. In recent years the relationship of arterial stiffness with cognitive function and dementia was also shown. Arterial stiffness can be measured by various methods. The most used of these methods is the measurement of pulse wave velocity. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between pulse wave velocity with dementia and whether there is a difference between Alzheimer?s disease and vascular dementia groups for pulse wave velocity.In total seventy patients, about to 50 of them were dementia and 22 of them were control, were enrolled into this study. Among dementia patients, 22 of them had Alzheimer?s disease, 28 of them had vascular dementia. Pulse wave velocity and other important cardiovascular risk factors were compared between dementia and control groups and then compared between Alzheimer?s disease, vascular dementia and control groups.According to the results of study, pulse wave velocity value was found higher in dementia group than in the control group (11,1±2,6, 10,0±3,1). This high value, even it was not significant, was very close to significance limit (p=0,07). When three groups were compared with each other, pulse wave velocity value was higher in vascular dementia (11,3±3,1) and Alzheimer?s disease group (10,7±2,0) than control group (10,03±,1), however the difference was not statically significant (p>0,05). Among other cardiovascular risk parameters, insulin, homocystein, LDL cholesterol, trygliseride, fasting glucose levels, mean diastolic pressure and mean arterial pressure values showed no difference between patients of three groups (p>0,05). Mean systolic pressure was higher in patients with dementia than control group (118,8±13,9, 113,3±13,3; p=0,04), mean pulse rate was higher in patients with vascular dementia than Alzheimer?s disease and control groups (respectively 77,9±12,5, 71,7±10,3, 70,5±7,9; p=0.02), HDL cholesterol was higher in control group than vascular dementia (56,8±15,6, 47,0±13,1; p<0.01).As a result pulse wave velocity was found higher in Alzheimer?s disease and vascular dementia groups than control group, however to consider arterial stiffness as an Alzheimer?s disease risk factor more studies with more patients are needed.