Kategoriler sorunu: Immanuel Kant ve Charles Sanders Peirce felsefeleri ekseninde
Since Aristotle, although the categories have been presented in different structures by philosophers, they have been understood as the basic alphabet that constitutes the language of existence. In addition to their universal value, the interpretation of the categories as linguistic elements in Antiquity and the Middle Ages attributed to them a particular value due to the particularity of the language to which they were related. During the period covering the Renaissance and the XVII. century, with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's view that reality should rather be expressed in formulas, categories as a form of basic knowledge appearing in propositions remarkably began to be interpreted on the real level rather than in a linguistic dimension to which they had been reduced previously. Because of such a change in the history of philosophy, two uses of categories can be distinguished: one use of categories as predicates in the linguistic domain and another mixed-use of them, as predicates in the linguistic and physical domains as we can see in Kantian thought. This study focuses, on the one hand, on the categories of the "Transcendental Analysis" division of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and on the universal categories of C. S. Peirce's article "On a New List on Categories" and on the other hand, on the effectiveness of these categories in effecting a continuity between the objects of the sensible world and of thought while taking into account the dominant scientific paradigms of Kant's and Peirce's time.