Afganistanda basın özgürlüğünün gelişimi ve medyanın güncel durumu
For the freedom of press and expression, all people and journalists worldwide work with all their might to have reasonable freedom of expression and have their voices heard in their countries. They enjoy one of their fundamental rights with this freedom of press and expression. Because of this situation, journalists and the public in Afghanistan constantly criticize the government that in a democratic republic, the government's freedom of the press and expression is severely censored. Therefore, this study aims to examine "The Development of Press Freedom and the Current Situation of the Media in Afghanistan" as the thesis subject. Thus, the situation of the press and freedom of expression in Afghanistan was investigated. Furthermore, the restrictions on press, media censorship and freedom of expression applied in Afghanistan were answered through the research. Moreover, the past and present state of Afghanistan's freedom of press and expression is discussed based on a scientific study. This research applied the qualitative approach. The study followed the literature review method. In this context, various books, master's and doctoral theses in Pashto, Persian, English and Turkish languages related to press and freedom of expression, press laws and law amendments in Afghanistan were examined and analyzed. The research also has an empirical field section. Interviews were conducted with journalists in Afghanistan to find out the journalists' perspectives on freedom of expression in the media. After examining the opinions of journalists, all materials were analyzed and organized according to a scientific research method. The government system in Afghanistan has changed from time to time. In administrations such as Absolute Monarchy, Republic, Islamic Emirate and the current Islamic Republic, Afghanistan's freedom of press and expression has been severely censored and suppressed, especially during the Monarchy and Islamic Emirate. In the current situation, the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan places more value on the freedom of press and expression. The government's policy towards the press is also lenient, based on the principle of democracy. Afghan journalists are also satisfied with the general policy of the government. They are not satisfied with access to information because some government officials do not provide information on time. Political pressure in the press in Afghanistan is low. However, despite the Taliban, the ISIS terrorist organization and some government officials endangered the lives of Afghan journalists. Looking at the structure of the media in Afghanistan, there are five types of media organizations operating. The funding source of each media and the policy of its activities are transparent. For example, all activities of state media outlets are regulated by government policy. Party media is organized by parties and takes into account party policy. Independent media organizations get their funds from advertisements that operate freely. NGOs finance NGO media with the sole purpose of improving a project and achieving better results. International media for Afghanistan is also funded by the countries that founded it. Even the Taliban, ISIS and other groups have media in Afghanistan. Thus, they make political propaganda against democracy and the government.