A Video Image Segmentation System for the Fruit-trees in Multi-stage Outdoors Orchard under Natural Conditions
IGNACİO ARRİBAS, Juan
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Segmentation is an important part of each machine vision system that has a direct relationship with the final system accuracy and performance. Outdoors segmentation is often complex and difficult due to both changes in sunlight intensity and the different nature of background objects. However, in fruit-tree orchards, an automatic segmentation algorithm with high accuracy and speed is very desirable. For this reason, a multi-stage segmentation algorithm is applied for the segmentation of apple fruits with Red Delicious cultivar in orchard under natural light and background conditions. This algorithm comprises a combination of five segmentation stages, based on: 1- L*u*v* color space, 2- local range texture feature, 3- intensity transformation, 4- morphological operations, and 5- RGB color space. To properly train a segmentation algorithm, several videos were recorded under nine different light intensities in Iran-Kermanshah (longitude: 7.03E; latitude: 4.22N) with natural (real) conditions in terms of both light and background. The order of segmentation stage methods in multi-stage algorithm is very important since has a direct relationship with final segmentation accuracy. The best order of segmentation methods resulted to be: 1- color, 2- texture and 3- intensity transformation methods. Results show that the values of sensitivity, accuracy and specificity, in both classes, were higher than 97.5%, over the test set. We believe that those promising numbers imply that the proposed algorithm has a remarkable performance and could potentially be applied in real-world industrial case.