Integration of in vitro and in silico perspectives to explain chemical characterization, biological potential and anticancer effects of Hypericum salsugineum: A pharmacologically active source for functional drug formulations
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The genus Hypericum is one of the most popular genera in both traditional medicine and scientific platform. This study is designed to provide conceptual insights on the biological potential and chemical characterization of H. salsugineum, which is endemic to Turkey. The qualitative and quantitative phenolic content of the extracts was characterized by HPLC-ESI-MSn. Biological efficiency was investigated by enzyme inhibitory assays (cholinesterases, tyrosinase, amylase, and glucosidase) and anti-cancer efficacy tests (anti-proliferative activities with the iCELLigence technology, colony formation and wound healing scratch assays). Phenolic acids (3-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acids) were the predominant group in the studied extracts, although several flavonoids were also detected and quantified. The extracts exhibited good inhibitory effects on tyrosinase and glucosidase, while they had weak ability against cholinesterases and amylase. Computational studies were also performed to explain the interactions between the major phenolics and these enzymes. The extracts displayed significant anti-cancer effects on breast carcinoma cell lines. Our findings suggest that Hypericum salsugineum could be valued as a potential source of biologically-active compounds for designing novel products. © 2018 Bender et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.