Usage of bacteriocins in hurdle technology
Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş
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It is known that instead of using a single methodfor food preservation, use of multiple methods providesbetter results. These multiple methods are known ashurdle technology and incorporate many preservationmethods. In hurdle technology it is also possible to useantimicrobial agents. There is some research focusingon usage of bacteriocins which are produced by bacteriaand have inhibitor effect against especially Grampositive bacteria for this purpose. Although it is thoughtbacteriocins are similar to antibiotics, because of usageof antibiotics in foods is limited and bacteriocins aredegradable compounds in the human body makes thebacteriocins more advantageous. Many bacterial speciesproduce bacteriocins, that often have an antimicrobialeffect on closely related organisms. These compoundshave been extensively studied because of being naturalbiopreservatives. Even when bacteriocins have beenused to extend shelf-life of foods, in general they onlyshow inhibitor effect against Gram positive bacteria. Though this is a problem for the inhibition of Gramnegative pathogens, actually, bacteriocins can also beapplied for the inactivation of Gram negative pathogensin foods in combination with other hurdles or treatmentsto induce cell damage and partial disorganization of theouter membrane protective layer. Several bacteriocins show additive or synergistic effects when used incombination with other antimicrobial agents, includingchemical preservatives, natural phenolic compounds, as well as other antimicrobial proteins. This method, as well as the combined use of different bacteriocinscan show an effective inhibition against resistancemicroorganisms. The combination of bacteriocinsand physical treatments like high pressure processingalso offer good results for more effective preservationof foods. To date, mostly using bacteriocins withthe agents reducing the pH of the media or chemicalssuch as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid)are tested. In this review, different usage of thebacteriocins, in other words different usage ofbacteriocins within the scope of hurdle technology havetried to summarize.