Student and school level factors in victimization of middle school students: An ecological perspective
This study aimed to investigate the role of student- and school-level factors that contribute to the likelihood of being peer victim and bully victim by comparing them with non-victim. The sample of the study consisted of 1557 (832 males, 725 females) middle school students from 16 different schools in Ankara. The data collection instruments of the study were; Demographic Data Form, California Bully Victimization Scale (CBVS; Felix, Sharkey, Green, Furlong, & Tanigawa, 2011), School Climate Survey (SCS; Emmons, Haynes, & Comer, 2002), and Self- Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQ-C; Muris, 2001). The results of hierarchical generalized linear modeling indicated a significant variation between the schools in the log-odds of peer victim and bully victim (relative to non-victim). The student-level variables predicted significantly the likelihood of being in peer victim and bully victim. Both peer victims and bully victims reported lower emotional self-efficacy, fairness, order and discipline. On the other hand, bully victims also reported lower sharing of resources and student interpersonal relations. After controlling the student-level variables (as covariates), the school-level variables did not statistically and significantly predict variation across the schools in the log-odds of peer victim. However, these variables statistically and significantly predicted variation across the schools in the log-odds of bully victim, but there was no significant predictor in the model.Consequently, findings suggested that most of the variation across the schools in victimization was explained by the characteristics of the students. The findings might underline the importance of attending emotional self-efficacy beliefs and school climate perceptions of the students’ while developing a school-specific bullying intervention.