THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FIRST WORLD WAR AND POSTWAR LITERATURE: THE STUDY OF FORM AND CONTENT IN THE GREAT GATSBY, TENDER IS THE NIGHT BY F.SCOTT FITZGERALD AND A FAREWELL TO ARMS, THE SUN ALSO RISES BY ERNEST HEMINGWAY
KORKUT, Esin (Yazar)
ELBİR, Belgin (Tez Danışmanı)
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The aim of this study is to interpret post-war novels of Hemingway and Fitzgerald in terms of the conflict between two twentieth-century critics, Bakhtin and Foucault, who became influential in different fields. The works chosen for the study are Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby and Tender is the Night, and Hemingway’s The Sun also Rises and A Farewell to Arms. The introduction gives an outline of Bakhtin’s and Foucault’s theories and explains what aspects of these theories will be influential in a study of modernist texts, and in what ways they can determine the central issues of this study. The introduction also includes a brief outline of modernistic approach to time, space and their relation to individual. Chapter One includes the study of The Great Gatsby in its relation to Bakhtin’s and Foucault’s theories, and an approach to the novel in terms of fragmentation and dialogism, and the relations between time and space. In this section the incoherence between Bakhtin and Foucault, especially on the issue of origins, the creation and fiction of the past and the influence of discourse determined the way the novel is approached. Chapter two includes the study of Tender is the Night. Foucault’s theory on power and his ideas on the generation of power and disciplinary mechanisms determined the focus of the study on characterization. Bakhtin’s view of carnival in contradistinction with Foucault’s panopticism highlighted the way the relations between spaces and characters are studied in the novel. In this section war is considered a primary influence in the perception of time and the creation of myth. Paul Fussell’s study on war memoirs became an invaluable resource in understanding the text’s relation to the war. Chapter Three starts with an argument about the tradition of confession. The difference between Bakhtin and Foucault on the nature of confession became crucial in the interpretation of the confessional style in A Farewell to Arms. The protagonist’s centripetal movement is considered a fragmentary experience, whereas the act of narration is considered an attempt of unification. The dissolution of unities and how Hemingway expressed fragmentation is central to the concerns of this chapter. The theme of war in the novel is interpreted in terms of Nietzsche’s criticism of civilization and morality. Chapter Four includes an analysis of Hemingway’s The Sun also Rises. The setting and characterization in the novel are interpreted in relation to modernism and Freud’s views. The chapter also includes an analysis of the role of mythification in the creation of reality. The study concludes with a brief explanation of how and why the contradiction between Bakhtin’s and Foucault’s views is related to a study of modernist novel.